Commercial Manual Download

The composition of mortars include a hydraulic conglomerate (cement), i.e. they harden in the presence of water.

If, due to high temperatures, the mortar loses water prior to hardening, the adhesive material would not acquire the required resistance.

In order to prevent this, it is advisable to moisten the substrate in order to cool it and reduce the degree of absorption of water.

In any case, it is not advisable to use hydraulic hardeners (cement or lime), when the temperature exceeds 35 degrees (measured on the support).

The effect of cold on a mortar while setting and hardening delays or even annuls the hydration of the active components of the cement.

If the cold is intense, it can even freeze the mixing water, destroying the mechanical resistances of the mortar.

In order to work in these circumstances, the following precautions must be taken:

  • Store the bags in a weather-protected area.
  • Heat the mixing water to approximately 40ºC.
  • Protect the freshly applied mortar with plastic or canvas.
  • Apply a specific antifreeze product in the doses indicated by the manufacturer.
  • As standard, it is not advisable to work in very cold weather or temperatures below 5 ° C.

One of the basic requirements when using a ceramic adhesive (tile adhesive) is that the surface must be clean, dry, stable and above them, apply, with the help of a notched trowel, the corresponding adhesive.
Art adhesives, allow to work in maximum thicknesses up to 15 mm.
If this were the case, it could be done without much problem.
If instead necessary to regularize the support with greater thicknesses, it is advisable to previously regularized with a specific mortar for this purpose.
Furthermore, the fact of applying more amount of adhesive grip, will not ensure better adherence, because it will increase the shrinkage of mortar and diminish its performance.

There is no strict rule.

Once the paste has been extended over the substrate, it must be taken into account that there is a period of time after which a surface film is formed.

This film prevents the correct moistening of the ceramic and, therefore, good adherence between the adhesive and the ceramic in question.

There are various factors that accelerate the process:

  • Excessive heat.
  • Substrate with high porosity.
  • Strong wind.

It is therefore very important to monitor the state of the paste applied. If this film appears, it will suffice to simply smooth with the toothed trowel and never moisten the paste, as we would cause the formation of an anti-adhesive film of water.

Specific adhesives for laying low-absorption ceramic tiles and natural or reconstituted stone behave physically, not mechanically. This means that the fine filaments of cement cannot penetrate in ceramic tiles due to their lack of porosity.

Consequently, the adherence of these pieces occurs physically or chemically, not mechanically. On not being able to penetrate the piece, this adherence occurs superficially, but this does not mean that high adherence data are not obtained.

These waterproofing systems have very different expansion coefficients to those of any cementitious adhesive.

In order to avoid this, we recommend not applying the adhesive directly on the surface. The correct way of doing this is to apply a textile sheet to avoid punctures and subsequently apply mortar or concrete.

It is of vital importance for the pebbles to be clean (washed) and dry.

We recommend washing and extending the pebbles on nets on a dry surface, moving it every now and then to ensure complete drying thereof prior to the application.

Wet or dirty pebbles will cause problems when finishing the one-coat cladding, as carbonations will appear due to the fact that the humidity of the pebbles will provide the necessary environment for the salts inherent to cementitious products to migrate outwards, appearing as white stains and altering the final finish.

They are carbonations.

When coatings containing cement or lime are applied in cold or wet weather, we run the risk that white stains may appear on their surface a few days after their application. These are due to the continuous supply and sedimentation of water-soluble salts on the coating surface.

Said salts are intrinsic and indispensable to ensure the correct hardening of the coating.

When the coating dries sufficiently fast, the salts remain in its interior. In this case, carbonation is not visible.

These stains alter the aesthetic appearance of the coating, but never its technical characteristics.

Therefore, we must avoid working in cold or rainy weather and, when this occurs, the working sections must be protected from both the rain and the cold.

This is a normal pathology in coatings.

Fissures result from the movement of the materials, which may be mechanical (e.g.: structural movements), hygrothermal (e.g.: hot, dry weather) and chemical (e.g.: appearance of salts).

When materials that work jointly in a constructive element have equivalent movements, these do not affect the behavior of the whole.

Generally speaking, fissures can be classified as follows:


  1. Staggered fissures or cracks in redientes (?)

These are fissures or cracks with straight sections broken into right angles coincident with the geometry of the pieces that form the rendering substrate.

They are originated by the relative movement of the bricks or blocks that constitute the masonry construction, through the mortar joints as the element that offers the least resistance.

The root of the problem must always be solved.

  1. Branched fissures.

Fissures that extend radially from a central point.

These fissures are due mainly to lack of adherence between the coating and the substrate, and may even hollow out.

In order to avoid said fissures, we recommend adequately preparing the base, which must be clean and as homogeneous as possible before applying the coating.

  1. Quartering fissures.

These fissures do not follow a specific direction and can be fissures with a chaotic direction.

These fissures are caused by retraction due to hydraulic dehydration.

In order to avoid these fissures, the mortar must be adequately cured by watering abundantly during setting to avoid dehydration and retraction fissures.

  1. Other causes

Large differences in elasticity between the substrate and the coating could cause major movements that the substrate is unable to absorb.

The differences in the substrate and coating expansion coefficient must be analyzed.


Fissures can also be caused as a result of not respecting the substrate’s expansion joints.

In order for this not to occur in the coating, we must reinforce the joints with fiberglass mesh and make it coincide with the area where the battens will be installed.

Likewise, it is advisable to use fiberglass mesh to absorb structural movements in areas where most stress is accumulated.

In general, concrete has a very smooth surface, vitrified appearance and low porosity that prevents good adherence of mineral coatings such as one-coat mortars, which act by means of mechanical adherence.

By adding synthetic resins to mortars or by applying a bonding bridge we will achieve the necessary chemical adherence to achieve good adherence to smooth, non-porous surfaces.

Whether by adding GECOL Látex and to mortars or using GECOL Primer-M as a bonding bridge, these are ideal products for executing this kind of work.

In so-called special points, with correspond to areas in which stresses arising from the construction work accumulate, and which can cause the cladding to crack (points of contact between different materials, brick-concrete, frameworks, pillars, blind boxes, door and window frames, etc.).

The treatment that must be given to these areas consists of incorporating fiberglass or metallic mesh (subsequently reinforcing it), that will resist said stresses without cracking.

The type of mesh that must be used to be effective must have a mesh grid square of 10×10 mm and be alkali-resistant, in order to resist the aggression of the cement.

We must always observe our substrate, as façades become degraded over the years.

Therefore, it is essential to know the characteristics and behavior of the materials that comprise it brick (brick, natural stone, lime mortars, one-coat mortars) in order to adequately select the new coat.

Continuous exposure to adverse weather (rain, frost, sudden temperature changes, etc.) causes natural aging of façades. In order to restore them, the adequate coating materials must be used, verifying the state of the substrate and its resistance.

Lime mortars allow us to achieve a highly decorative coating for all types of façades and interiors, in addition to the restoring all types of buildings, even emblematic and old buildings.

We always recommend completely curing the masonry, emptying the joints and removing all the degraded elements, and washing with pressurized water to clean the substrate surface of fungus, dust, traces of pain, degraded parts, etc.

Regularize the substrate with GECOL Sec silíceo cal to obtain correct planimetry prior to applying the new coating.

On highly absorbent substrates and/or substrates that are easily disaggregated, we must apply a primer coat of  GECOL Primer-TP diluted with water in the ratio 1:3, by way of hardener and pore sealer.

Lastly, use GECOL Revoco cal to obtain the desired finish.

Yes, the terracotta block is a lightweight clay ceramic block with excellent thermal and acoustic properties.

Due to its composition and morphology, a series of precautions must be taken when applying a one-coat mortar.

Due to its high porosity, it is advisable to moisten it, especially in hot weather or with strong wind, and install the fiberglass mesh in the contact between the blocks and other materials (pillars, frameworks, lintels, block, etc.), covering at least 20 cm on either side of the joins.

We recommend applying a first coat, 4-5 mm thick, by way of primer to avoid the appearance of specters (visibility of the concrete block through the coat). Apply a second coat, approximately 1 cm thick, over the first coat, always checking that the first coat has the adequate consistency; if not, we recommend spraying it with water first.

Lastly, apply the GECOL Revoco or GECOL Monocapa range, following all the application instructions specified in its Technical Data Sheet.

No, cellular concrete substrates, due to their technical characteristics such as low density and unit weight, have high porosity, which can lead to dehydration or fast absorption of the one-coat mortar mixing water, preventing the proper development of the coating’s mechanical properties.

To this end, a series of preliminary actions must be performed, such as previously moistening the substrate (without saturation it) and then letting it dry, applying the primer  GECOL Primer-TP diluted with water in the ratio 1:3 as an absorption regulator and installing fiberglass mesh in the contacts between the blocks and the other materials (pillars, frameworks, lintels, block, etc.), covering at least 20 cm on either side of the joins.

We recommend applying a first coat, 4-5 mm thick, by way of primer to avoid the appearance of specters (visibility of the concrete block through the coat). Apply a second coat, approximately 1 cm thick, over the first coat, always checking that the first coat has the adequate consistency; if not, we recommend spraying it with water first.

Lastly, apply GECOL Monocapa premium, following all the application instructions specified in its Technical Data Sheet. This one-coat mortar is ideal on being a lightweight one-coat mortar, thereby contributing to the thermal insulation of the façade.

The substrate on which we are going to perform our work must always be verified. In the case of mortars applied in situ at the worksite, these are mostly mortars with low cement content, due to which it is a substrate with high porosity and low resistance.

A very porous substrate may cause excessively fast drying of the one-coat mortar. In addition to fissures, excessively fast loss of water in the one-coat mortar causes loss of most of its physical properties.

A low-resistance substrate causes hollowing out due to lack of adherence, giving rise to fissures and detachments.

Therefore, we recommend priming substrates with high porosity or lack of resistance with GECOL Primer-TP.

Different working sections must be separated by these decorative elements, as all joins have different colors.

The distance between cold joints is determined by the surface area of the working section on which it can be applied at one time, the recommended maximum separation between joints being 2.5 m x 7 m.

Masonry mortars, according to current regulations, are designed to execute masonry constructions (façades, walls, pillars, partitions), jointing and masonry interlocking. Therefore, when roughcasting or plastering there are a series of problems not envisaged due to their fast drying, retraction fissures, lack of adherence and superficial hardness, etc.

In order to correctly execute roughcasting, according to current regulations, a series of mortars for plastering and rendering façades that offer a solution to these problems have been designed, such as GECOL Monocapa premium, GECOL Monocapa and GECOL Revoco.

The need met by this product must be taken into account. The function performed by GECOL Grout is a machinery and filling anchoring function.

In order to strengthen the union between the mortar and the metallic element that must be fixed to the mortar, it is conferred slightly expansive properties that will be adequately compensated provided that it is used in confined places, thereby reinforcing the fixation.

It would not make sense to use this mortar in an open space as, given its expansive properties, it would not provide the required solution.

Depending on the characteristics required of the different concrete elements, they may form part of the building structure or part of areas which, while requiring resistance, do not form part of the building support structure.


Therefore, taking into account the function fulfilled by said element, the repair can be made using GECOL Reparatec R2 in the case of the repair of a non-structural element (edge, balcony edge, repair of small voids, etc.). If the area to be repaired is concrete that forms part of a structure (a pillar, a supporting column, a framework, etc.), it must be resolved using GECOL Reparatec R4, which is a concrete repair mortar that offers greater resistance to the loads it supports.

In order to fix ceramic cladding, a cementitious mortar should be used for ceramic tiles. Not only can they not be adhered using a mortar (even refractory), but the specific conditions we will find must also be taken into consideration.

  • The substrate will reach significant variations in temperature (depending on whether or not the chimney is functioning).
  • The ceramic tiles that resist these conditions are normally ceramic tiles with low porosity.

Given all these peculiarities, we must use an adhesive that will be capable of supporting these extreme situations that ensure an adequate union between the cladding and the substrate, without losing its properties over time.

To do this, we have a deformable adhesive of high technical performance as GECOL Flexible premium.

A refractory mortar must be used in all those situations where high temperatures are reached, as a traditional mortar (Portland Cement, traditional aggregate) would not support them, especially those reached in the barbecue firebox.

GECOL Refractario is comprised of cement and refractory aggregate whose main characteristic is to have a high flux content which, once a high temperature has been reached, tends to become vitrified, thereby avoiding its degradation.

In ETICS or SATE systems, both the gluing and hardening of the EPS, XPS and MW (Mineral Wool) insulating plates must be executed using adhesive mortar with a high content of redispersible resins and fiber-reinforced, for perfect chemical adherence to a non-absorbent plate and the substrate to be rehabilitated and hardening of the plate, embedding the alkali-resistant mesh and subsequent final finish.

GECOL Term is an adhesive mortar for adhering the insulating plate, regardless of its nature, on the substrate to be rehabilitated. Likewise, it is the ideal product for coating, hardening and finishing the insulating plate and mesh.

The advantages of using a cementitious product such as GECOL Tabique cerámico with respect to gypsum or plaster-based products are significant, namely:

  1. It can be applied in exteriors or in places with permanent humidity (kitchens and bathrooms), as once hardened it does not become degraded such as gypsum or plaster-based products on being attacked by water or humidity.
  2. A specific material is not required in the subsequent installation of ceramic cladding, as the installation material and adhesive are of the same nature.
  3. It does not attack the metallic elements of a building, as in the case of gypsum or plaster-based products.

In brick masonry walls, we find that most of the time the joints therebetween the brick courses are not executed perfectly, leaving cavities between the bricks laid.

When waterproofing using thin-bed products, we have the added difficulty of filling all these cavities, normally nonfulfilling the thicknesses indicated in the Technical Data Sheets of these products for thin-bed application.

GECOL Imper-G is a thick-bed waterproofing agent, formulated using cement resistant to sulfates and aggressive water and allowing, due to its composition, sufficient thicknesses for absorbing the irregularities of the brick masonry wall.

In order to install mineral wool in the double cladding, we must use a waterproofing adhesive mortar that prevents the entrance of water while maintaining its permeability to vapor, thereby allowing the building to breathe correctly, avoiding condensation.

GECOL Lana mineral. is a waterproofed mortar with plastifying additives that make it highly adhesive both to the substrate and to the mineral wool insulation.

Several factors must be taken into account when applying a leveling paste on a floor with radiant heating.

  • The treatment of joints, executing perimeter joints in corners and changes in plane, height or material, expansion joints, between door cavities and structural joints of the building.
  • A study of the cementitious floor, normally performed onsite, applying a hardening and pore-sealing primer in order to obtain the adequate substrate.
  • The use of a leveling paste, capable of adapting to the temperature gradients typical of these types of substrates with radiant heating.

GECOL Primer-TP is the adequate pore-sealing, hardening primer for obtaining a resistant, stable substrate with an optimum degree of absorption.

GECOL Nivelante-F y GECOL Nivelante  G are the adequate fast-setting leveling pastes with redispersible resins for perfectly tolerating the changes in temperature that occur in the floor.

We find cases where the buried walls are not watertight, due to which water penetrates therethrough, endangering in many cases the installations they protect.

This water is accompanied by dissolved salts from the ground, causing various pathologies that could degrade the wall.

Many waterproofing agents such as asphalt cloths, bituminous paints or so-called rubbers do not resist the backpressure exerted by the water outside the wall.

 GECOL Imper-F y GECOL imper-G is a cementitious waterproofing agent formulated with special cements that resist dissolved salts and aggressive water, and the backpressure exerted by water.

Due to their nature, glass blocks are non-porous, due to which we cannot build a wall with such blocks using a traditional mortar.

Neither is the use of a cementitious mortar recommended due to its high degree of retraction. In addition, its application is complicated because they tend to bulge due to the weigh of the block and are normally very sticky, which makes it difficult to apply using a palette.

To this we must add the fact that we would have to use a wide-joint mortar once the adhesive has set, sufficiently flexible for finishing, due to which it would have to be executed in two steps.

GECOL Glass is an adhesive mortar with added redispersible resins, highly consistent and very fine for installing and jointing glass blocks in the same operation.

Normally, damp that appears on baseboards inside dwellings are caused by rising damp.

Damp occurs when the wall absorbs water from the ground, which rises up the wall seeking to evaporate.

This damp transports the salts contained in the ground, depositing them on the outer part of the wall.

These salts become hydrated when they come into contact with humidity, increasing in volume and causing internal breaking of the wall and its coating, degrading it.

In these cases, we recommend thoroughly curing the wall down to the base substrate, removing the salts and other impurities with GECOL Desincrustante, and subsequently applying GECOL Aqua mur, which is a macroporous mortar which allows the wall to breathe, thereby evaporating the rising damp.

On being a macroporous product, the salts may deposit in its cavities, preventing degradation of the final coat.

The finish applied to this product must be a scraped or rustic finish, as it does not allow a smooth finish on blocking the cavities through which the wall breathes.

This product is coatable provided that the system’s permeability to water vapor is not affected.

The main difference is the manner in which they harden: aerated lime hardens on contact with air once it has lost its mixing water and hydraulic lime hardens on contact with water.

Aerated lime is called lime or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and hydraulic lime is called white natural cement.

As the regards the manufacturing process, hydraulic lime requires a greater energy input than traditional calcination in its transformation process.

Aerated lime offers greater workability and flexibility due to its high fineness.

Aerated lime has high porosity, which is responsible for a maximum water vapor compensation effect in the dwelling (greater water vapor permeability), and better thermal insulation.

Hydraulic lime has greater resistance to compression, greater initial resistance and also tolerates the transfer of damp and mineral salts.

Therefore, we can conclude that aerated lime is more “eco-friendly” than hydraulic lime due to its manufacturing and permeability characteristics.

The main difference is the nature of its conglomerate or hardening agent (lime or cement).

Portland cement mortars are characterized by their high mechanical resistances.

Lime mortars may be aerated lime mortars or hydraulic lime mortars, depending on whether they set by the action of air or water. Their two main characteristics are their eco-friendly nature, due to the low CO2 emissions during their manufacturing process, and their high permeability to water vapor, which prevents the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS).

Jointing or encintado of the natural stone of a baseboard or façade using joint mortar is not recommended.

Normally, the technical recommendations of jointing mortars as regards application thicknesses vary up to 20 mm, always based on the depth of the joint, which would be that of the ceramic tile (8-10 mm). In these types of applications, the natural stones are usually irregular stones both in terms of thicknesses and shapes, due to which both their application thicknesses and depth differ from those mentioned previously.

GECOL Encintado is the ideal mortar for executing this type of work, due to its additives and compensated granulometry, which confers ideal properties for execution both in terms of thicknesses and the depth established by said natural stones.

The main differences are:

  • Aggregate size (mortars: maximum size 1-2 mm and bagged concrete: maximum 12 cm).
  • Final resistances (mortars: GM5.5, GM5, GM7.5, etc. and concretes: H-20, H-25, etc.).
  • Applicable standards (EN 998-2 Masonry mortars and EHE-08 Dry concrete).

These differences mark the main uses of these products.

GECOL Sec silíceo is a range of masonry mortars for executing screeds and floors, construction of brick masonry walls, etc.

GECOL Hormigón seco is valid for executing highly resistant, non-structural applications such as: flooring, foundations, filling, channeling and different repairs and construction of concrete partitioning walls.

In order to build brick masonry walls, resistant and consistent products are required, such as to support all the load exerted thereon.

In general, rendering mortars and cementitious adhesives contain additives in their formulas which confer certain qualities (sprayable, redispersible resins, aerators, etc.) that interfere with the aforementioned needs. Producing failures in the consistency or resistance of the wall during execution thereof.

The GECOL Sec silíceo range are masonry mortars classified as GM2.5, GM5 and GM7.5 according to Standard EN 998-2 “Masonry mortars”, based on their final resistance (2.5 N/mm2, 5 N/mm2 and 7.5 N/mm2, respectively), which have the necessary properties for building typical masonry constructions such as screeds, walls, etc.

GECOL Primer-M is a bonding bridge destined solely for preparing smooth, non-absorbent concretes prior to applying a mortar.

It is additivated with mineral loads to provide a greater anchoring surface for the mortar applied.

GECOL Primer-TP is a bonding bridge in its pure form (undiluted), in applications of adherence of a ceramic tile to another ceramic tile and as a surface hardener (diluted) for application as pore-sealing agent and hardener of gypsum, mortar and concrete surfaces.

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